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Emotional Computers

Computer models of emotions
and their meaning

for emotion-psychological research

Gerd Ruebenstrunk
November 1998


1. Introduction

2. Artificial feelings

3. Strange brains

4. Theoretical foundations

4.1. The theory of Ortony, Clore and Collins

4.2. The theory of Roseman

4.3. The theory of Scherer

4.4. The theory of Frijda

4.5. The theory of Oatley & Johnson-Laird

5. Electronic assistants

5.1. The models of Dyer

5.1.1. BORIS

5.1.2. OpEd


5.2. The model of Pfeifer

5.3. The model of Bates and Reilly

5.4. The model of Elliott

5.4.1. Construction of the agents

5.4.2. Generating emotions

5.4.3. Generating actions

5.4.4. Interpreting the emotions of other agents

5.4.5. Further development of the model

5.5. The model of Scherer

5.6. The model of Frijda and Swagerman

5.7. The model of Moffat and Frijda

5.7.1. Criticism of ACRES

5.7.2. Requirements for an emotional system

5.7.3. Implementation in WILL

5.8. Other models

5.8.1. The model of Colby

5.8.2. The model of Reeves

5.8.3. The model of Rollenhagen and Dagkvist

5.8.4. The model of O'Rorke

5.8.5. The model of Araujo

5.9. Conclusions

6. Visions of the pioneer

7. Encounters on Taros

7.1. What is a Fungus Eater?

7.2. Emotional Fungus Eaters

7.2.1. The "biological urges"

7.2.2. The "emergency urges"

7.2.3. The "social urges"

7.2.4. The "cognitive urges"

7.3. Evaluation of Toda's model

8. Development and implementation of Toda's model

8.1. The modification of Toda's urges byAubé

8.2. The partial implementation of Toda's theory by Wehrle

8.3. Pfeifer's "Fungus Eater principle"

8.4. The approach of Dörner et al.

8.5. Conclusion

9. The philosopher from Birmingham

9.1. Approaches to the construction of intelligent systems

9.2. The fundamental architecture of an intelligent system

9.2.1. The layers

9.2.2. The control states

9.2.3. Motivators and filters

9.2.4. The global alarm system

9.3. Emotions

9.4. Implementation of the theory in MINDER1

9.4.1. The reactive sub-system

9.4.2. The deliberative sub-system

9.4.3. The meta-management sub-system

9.5. Conclusion

10. The libidinal economy of the computer

10.1. Criticism of interrupt theories of emotions

10.1.1. The control precedence problem

10.1.2. The emotional learning problem

10.1.3. The hedonic tone problem

10.2. Valence

10.3. Learning in adaptive agent systems

10.3.1. Q-Learning

10.3.2. The classification system of Holland

10.3.3. XCS

10.3.4. Dyna

10.3.5. The concept of "value"

10.4. Wright's currency flow hypothesis

10.5. The details of the CLE system

10.5.1. The libidinal selective system

10.5.2. The conative universal equivalent (CUE)

10.5.3. Credit assignment

10.5.4. The value circulation theory

10.6. A practical example of CLE

10.7. CLE and the problems of interrupt theories

10.7.1. CLE and the hedonic tone problem

10.7.2. CLE and the emotional learning problem

10.7.3. CLE and the valenced perturbant states problem

10.7.4. CLE and the control precedence problem

10.8. Conclusion

11. A new paradigm?

11.1. The models of Velásquez

11.1.1. Cathexis

11.1.2. Yuppy

11.2. The model of Foliot and Michel

11.3. The model of Gadanho and Hallam

11.4. The model of Staller and Petta

11.5. The model of Botelho and Coelho

11.6. The model of Canamero

11.7. Conclusion

12. Meaning for emotion-psychological research